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Second, marriedindividuals are required to be tested for HIV/AIDS upon the request of theirspouses. Third, if a physician finds it "necessary" for a child or anincapacitated person to be tested for HIV/AIDS, he or she may conduct thetest without seeking consent and may show the result to the parent,guardian, or care provider. Ensuring that all HIV testing is confidential, conducted with informedconsent, and accompanied by counseling is widely recognized as integral toeffective HIV prevention and treatment
strategies. Mandatory HIV testing anddisclosure have been condemned by the Joint United Nations Programme onHIV/AIDS, the World
Health Organization, and the UN's Office of the HighCommissioner of Human Rights as violations of the right to privacy andcounterproductive to effective HIV/AIDS control. These organizations have also stated that mandatory testing and compulsorydisclosure can put women at increased risk of abuse and undermine publictrust in the health care system. Research by Human Rights Watch on HIVtesting has documented significant abuses associated with coercive testingprograms.